Human security provides
the underlying basis for development of policies and strategies to improve
crisis prevention, mitigation and recovery in Sub-Saharan Africa. Human
security clarifies the critical link between disaster and development
and provides a basis on which relief and development interventions can
be more effectively planned and coordinated. Transition from crisis to
development is too rarely achieved in SSA. Instead, many societies are
stuck in a cycle of underdevelopment and crisis. Human security must be
achieved before societies can effectively achieve broad-based sustainable
development. Human security is achieved when population groups have minimum
standards of human rights as well as livelihood and environmental security.
The sense of well-being (psycho-social state) is an important manifestation
of human security that enables populations to move forward towards positive
Security in Crisis and Transition: A Background Document of Definition
Jennifer Leaning and Sam Arie, Harvard University.
CERTI Project. New Orleans, Payson Center for International Development
and Technology Transfer, Tulane University, December 2000.
Abstract: Human Security emerged in the 1990s as a conceptual
response to two changing dimensions of the international order, referred
to as globalization and the end of the Cold War. These political
and economic transformations have increased the risk of internal conflict
and shifted the locus of ‘insecurity’ from the nation state and its allies
to the individual and community. This shift, defined and explicated
in the 1994 UN Human Development Report, has led to the recognition that
to protect and promote human development in the future, donors will first
have to address the issue of human security--the question of security
in people’s daily lives.
Report 1994, New Dimensions of Human Security
United Nations Development Programme.
Security: Concept and Measurement
Kanti Bajpai The Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies,
University of Notre Dame, Occasional Paper #19:OP:1
This paper lays the groundwork for the development of a human security
audit that combines the formation of a Human Security Index along with
qualitative estimates of the state of human security. (See article on
page 1 of this Report.) Bajpai first delineates the concept of human security,
contrasting it with the dominant, neo-realist conception of security.
He notes four distinctive features of human security: its focus on the
individual, its concern with values of personal safety and freedom, its
consideration of indirect threats, and its emphasis on non-coercive means.
Bajpai then proposes the development of a Human Security Index, parallel
to the Human Development Index, and outlines various uses of such an index.
The Index would combine a quantitative measure of direct and indirect
threats with an evaluation of the capabilities to meet those threats.
Where quantitative measurement is not possible or fruitful, Bajpai suggests
how qualitative assessments could be incorporated.
Security as a New Measure of Global Security
Claude Bruderlein, Director, Program on Humanitarian Policy
and Conflict Research, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA
The safety of the individual - human security - has become a new measure
of international security and a new impetus for global action. In the
human security framework, the ultimate end of the security infrastructure
is the protection of people and communities against major threats.
Although the agents in charge of this security in the majority of cases
does not shy away from engaging other actors who can achieve security
within a region, be they international or regional organizations, private
security groups, or other non-state entities. It is important, however,
that this framework be clearly defined and distinguished from existing
concepts of development and well-being in order to improve its potential
for engaging those actors capable of carrying through its objectives.
Refugees and International
Security: An Introduction to the Issues
Jeff Crisp, Head, Evaluation and Policy Analysis Unit, UNHCR, Geneva
Security: a Refugee Perspective
Keynote Speech by Mrs Sadako Ogata, United Nations High Commissioner for
Refugees, at the Ministerial Meeting on Human Security Issues of the "Lysoen
Process" Group of Governments, Bergen, Norway, 19 May 1999
bluebook. Overview: Human Security
Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2000
“Japan emphasizes "Human Security" from the perspective of strengthening
efforts to cope with threats to human lives, livelihoods and dignity as
poverty, environmental degradation, illicit drugs, transnational organized
crime, infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, the outflow of refugees and
anti-personnel land mines, and has taken various initiatives in this context.
To ensure "Human freedom and potential," a range of issues needs
to be addressed from the perspective of "Human Security" focused
on the individual, requiring cooperation among the various actors in the
international community, including governments, international organizations
and civil society.”
Devyani Mani, UNCRD
Canadian Consortium on
Human Security (CCHS)
The Canadian Consortium on Human Security (CCHS) is an
academic-based network promoting policy-relevant research on human security
and facilitating analysis and the exchange of information relating to
human security. The Human Security Bulletin is the CCHS' flagship online
publication and can be viewed at http://www.humansecurity.info/
Human Security Fellowship program fosters innovative research and policy
development on a range of human security issues. Fellowships are awarded
yearly for academic and non-academic research. For more details, and for
examples of current Fellowship holders' work and research, please refer
to the Bulletin website.
UNHCR Human Security
and Regional Development Project